…They spy out the enemy’s huts at night and attack at dawn. If they take a prisoner who is badly wounded they kill him at once and carry home the meat roasted. Those that are not wounded they take back alive and kill them in the huts. They attack with loud yells…
Kanibalismus – Canibalism
The battles between the Americans and Indians in the U.S.
SOME time had elapsed since Canochet had left his new friends, promising that the war-hatchet should be forever buried between his tribe and the English. The settlers had begun to grow corn and tobacco, as well as to form gardens in which vegetables of all descriptions were produced.
The surrounding natives visited them occasionally, but exhibited much want of confidence, which it was the object of the governor to overcome. He issued strict orders that all the Indians appearing among them should be treated with courtesy and kindness, and any chiefs coming to James Town were invariably sent away with presents and assurances of the good-will of the colonists.
Still it was a hard matter to do away with the ill-feeling which existed in consequence of the hostile meetings which had previously occurred between the colonists and the Indians, in which many on both sides had been slain.
At this juncture, one evening, as the settlers were returning to their dwellings, the labors of the day being over, the sentry posted on the look-out tower at one of the corners of the stockade gave notice that an Indian in hot haste was approaching the town.
As he came near he was recognized as an Indian named Pomaunkee, who had frequently been at the settlement, and who appeared to have a friendly feeling for the whites, although many disputes had occurred between them and his people, in which several of the latter had been killed.
He brought, he said, disastrous intelligence. Captain Smith and his followers had been attacked by a large body of Indians, who had murdered all but the captain, who, having been overcome after a desperate struggle, had been carried captive to Powhattan, their chief. He also, probably, Pomaunkee declared, would be put to death, unless Powhattan would agree to receive a ransom for him.
The news, which was generally believed, created much dismay and excitement among the colonists. Pomaunkee was conducted to the governor, who examined him by means of an interpreter, to satisfy himself of the truth of his report.
The Indian, however, persisted in his statement, and at length the governor was convinced of its correctness.
Those attached to Captain Smith expressed a desire to send out a party to rescue him, and all were ready to pay any ransom demanded.
Among his warmest friends was Master Rolfe, Lettice Audley’s old admirer. He had been prevented by an attack of illness from accompanying him, and was now most eager to set off; Vaughan, Gilbert and Roger begged that they also might go.
It was an opportunity not to be lost. Neither Captain Layton nor Mistress Audley could withhold their consent. As they were getting ready, Fenton and Oliver Dane came and offered their services; they were aware of the risk, but they could endure the fatigue as well as older men, and such danger as was to be encountered they did not dread. Gilbert was very glad to find that they were to go. As the two seamen, Tarbox and Flowers, were supposed to have some acquaintance with the natives, they were also selected to form part of the expedition which was placed under Master Rolfe’s command. Pomaunkee offered to act as guide; and though the governor somewhat doubted his fidelity, his services were accepted.
The party, thoroughly armed and confident in their numbers, set off in high spirits, glad to have escaped at length from the daily routine of the settlement. Mistress Audley, Lettice and Cicely could not see them depart without feeling much anxiety. Captain Layton would gladly have accompanied them, but a long tramp on shore did not suit his legs, he observed; and he had moreover to look after the ship, and to protect Cicely and Mistress Audley and Lettice. The expedition had been kept as secret as possible, that the natives might not hear of it, and give information to the neighboring tribes.
Roger, Fenton and Oliver had been up for some time, eager to set off, and at early dawn the whole party filed out of the town, taking a course to the north-west. They proceeded rapidly, as it was important to escape the observation of any of the natives visiting the town who might carry information of their approach to Powhattan.
As far as they could discover, they were observed by no one, and several miles were accomplished without a native being met with. The country through which they passed was in some parts open and level, in others covered by dense forests, many of the trees being totally strange to them. They had to cross numerous limpid streams, so that they were in no want of water.
Several deer started from their coverts in the forest and bounded away over the plain, sorely tempting the travelers to follow them; but Master Rolfe, like a wise leader, forebade his men to separate in chase, lest the natives might take occasion to attack them. Gilbert and Fenton generally marched together and brought up the rear; it was the post of danger, but they were both known to be active and intelligent, and would keep as bright a look-out as any of the party. As they marched on, they held converse together.
“What think you of our guide, Pomaunkee?” asked Gilbert; “I watched him when we halted for dinner, and it struck me that I had seldom seen a less attractive countenance, or one more expressive of cunning. I expressed my opinion to my brother Vaughan, but he replied that Master Rolfe has perfect confidence in the man, having had frequent intercourse with him.”
“I agree with you,” answered Fenton. “I too watched him when he did not observe me; and it will be well to keep a look-out on him, though we must take care not to let him discover that he is suspected.”
Evening was now approaching, when Rolfe, who had a soldier’s eye, was looking out for a fit place for encamping. At a little distance he espied a rocky knoll rising out of the plain, with a stream flowing round its base on all sides. He at once saw that it would be a good spot for camping and might serve at some future time for the establishment of a fort. Pomaunkee, however, to whom he pointed it out, urged that they should continue on a mile or two farther, observing that the forest would afford greater shelter and warmth during the night, and that he would conduct them to a more fitting spot on the bank of a river.
“I am very sure that your proposal, Rolfe, is the best,” observed Gilbert, who overheard the Indian’s remark; “we shall be the better for a cooler air at night, and moreover free from mosquitos on the top of the knoll. Allow Fenton and me to explore it, and we will quickly bring you word whether it is likely to prove as suitable for encamping as you suppose.”
Rolfe having consented to this, Gilbert and Fenton set off. They quickly came to the conclusion that a better place for camping at night in an enemy’s country could not be found, as, with proper vigilance, they were not likely to be surprised; and, if attacked, could easily defend themselves against vastly superior numbers, especially if they had time to erect stockades at the more assailable points. The river, which flowed round three sides, was too deep to be forded; while rough rocks, a dozen or more feet in perpendicular height, formed the greater portion of the remaining side.
They hurried back with this information, and, encountering Vaughan, who had come to meet them, persuaded him to induce Rolfe to act as he proposed, in opposition to the Indian’s suggestions. Pomaunkee could scarcely conceal his annoyance; he, however, being unable to offer any further reason for proceeding, was compelled to follow the commander. Preparations for camping were soon made: some brushwood at the foot of the knoll was cut down to supply fuel. Gilbert, whose suspicions of Pomaunkee were increased by the opposition he had offered to the selection of the place, suggested that some stout stakes should be cut, and fixed on the side of the hill where the slope, being less abrupt than in other places, might be more easily mounted.
While these arrangements were being made, Gilbert and Fenton, who had been, according to their intention, watching Pomaunkee, saw him descend the hill and go in the direction of the forest. In a short time they lost sight of him among the trees.
“We ought not to have allowed him to go,” observed Gilbert; “and even now I would advise Rolfe to send some men after him to bring him back, in case he may propose to desert us altogether.”
“The sooner we do so, then, the better,” said Fenton; and together they went to Rolfe, who was at the time on the other side of the hill, and told him what they had observed.
“The Indian, I know, is faithful,” he answered; “and I cannot suppose that he has any intention of playing us false.”
Vaughan, however, agreed with Gilbert, and at length persuaded Rolfe to send Tarbox and Flowers, with two other men, to follow the Indian and to bring him back, should it appear that he was deserting them. Meantime, the fires were lighted, pots were put on to boil, huts formed with boughs were set up to serve as a shelter from the night air, and all other arrangements for the night encampment were made. It was nearly dark when Tarbox and the other men with him returned, stating that they had once caught sight of Pomaunkee in the distance, but before they could get up to him he had disappeared, and that after having searched in vain, they had judged it time to return.
“His disappearance without telling me of his intention, looks suspicious,” observed Rolfe, “and I thank you, Gilbert and Fenton, for the warning you gave me. He may intend treachery, or he may simply have grown weary of guiding us, and, Indian fashion, have gone off without thinking it necessary to tell us of his intention. In either case, we will strengthen the camp as far as time will allow.”
“For my part, I am glad to be rid of him,” observed Gilbert; “and, aided by our compass, we can find our way without his guidance.”
Supper was over; the watch was set, the officers were seated round their camp-fire, discussing how they should proceed on reaching Powhattan’s village on the morrow, when the sentry gave notice that an Indian was approaching from the side of the forest.
“After all, we have wronged Pomaunkee, and he is returning,” observed Rolfe.
“Not so certain of that,” remarked Vaughan, who had now begun to entertain the same opinion of the Indian as his brother; he may have been absent on an errand not tending to our advantage, and it will be well, if we do not hold him in durance, that we watch him even more narrowly than before.”
“Let us, at all events, learn what he has to say for himself,” observed Gilbert, rising.
Vaughan and Fenton accompanied him. The Indian ascended the hill, and the sentry, believing him to be their guide, allowed him to pass without challenge.
As he got within the ruddy glare of the fire, instead of the forbidding countenance of Pomaunkee, the far more pleasant features of the Manacan chief, Canochet, were brought into view. Vaughan and Gilbert greeted him warmly.
“I am thankful that I have arrived in time to warn you of intended treachery,” said the chief. “He who undertook to be your guide has formed a plot for your destruction. I gained a knowledge of his intentions, and instantly followed on your trail to warn you.
“On passing through the forest I found that you had come hither, and was following you when I caught sight of the traitor. I tracked him, unseen, till I found he had joined a large body of his tribe, who are lying in ambush about a mile from this.
“On discovering them, I had no doubt that he intended to betray you into their hands. As I thought that even now he might hope to attack you unawares, I hastened to bring you warning that you might be prepared, should he attempt to surprise you. I myself would remain, but my single arm could not avail you much, and I should render you more aid by returning to my people, who, though they are still at a distance, I may yet bring up in time to assist you.”
Rolfe, on hearing this, thanking Canochet for the warning he had given, begged him to hasten on his tribe, though he doubted not that he could hold out against any number of savages Pomaunkee might collect to attack him.
“You call them savages,” observed Canochet; “but remember, except that they do not possess fire-arms, they are as brave and warlike as you are; and as they know the country and are full of cunning, they are not to be despised. Take my advice; do not be tempted to quit your present position till I return with my people. Depend on it, it will be their endeavor to draw you away, so that they may attack you when you are encamping in the forest or open ground.”
“Your advice seems good, my friend,” answered Rolfe, “but suppose you are delayed? We shall starve here, unless we can procure food.”
“Trust to my return before that time arrives,” answered Canochet; “I will endeavor to supply your wants. I must no longer delay, as every moment is precious. It is my belief that you will be attacked this night, so be on the watch. However hard pressed by numbers, do not yield.”
“You may depend on our holding out to the last,” answered Rolfe; and the Indian, without further remark, descended the hill, making his way down among the rocks, so that, had any one been watching at a distance, he could not have been discovered.
Almost before he had reached the bottom of the hill he had disappeared, and even Gilbert’s keen eyes could not detect him as he rapidly penetrated into the forest.
“If Canochet has spoken the truth, we have had a narrow escape,” observed Vaughan. “We shall do well to take his advice and to remain here, whether we are attacked or not, till his return.”
To the wisdom of this Rolfe and Roger Layton agreed, eager as they were to hasten to the rescue of Captain Smith. Having completed their fortifications as far as their materials would permit, six of their party were told off to keep watch, while the rest lay down to sleep.
Roger took command of the first watch, for he suspected that the Indians would attack them during the early part of the night. On going round to the sentries, he found them standing upright, their figures clearly discernible against the sky to any one approaching on the plain below. Pointing out to them the danger to which they thus exposed themselves, he directed them to crouch down, so that an enemy might have no mark at which to aim.
“I fear, sir, that some of our fellows may be apt to fall asleep,” observed Ben Tarbox, who was one of those in the first watch.
“Do not trouble yourselves about that,” answered Roger; “I will take good care that they keep awake. If any one of you catch sight of a moving object, do not fire till you hail, and then, if you get no answer, take good aim, and do not throw a shot away.”
The men promised obedience. There was little chance, while Roger Layton was on watch, of the fort being surprised. The first watch went by without the slightest sound being heard, or an object seen outside the camp. The second was drawing to a close, when Ben Tarbox exclaimed: “Who goes there? Stand up like a man, or I’ll fire at you!”
His shout caused all the sleepers to raise their heads. The shot which followed made them seize their weapons and start to their feet! Scarcely had the sound of the shot died away, when the most terrific cries and shrieks rent the air, followed by a flight of arrows which whistled over the heads of the garrison as they hurried to the stockades, and a hundred dark forms showed themselves endeavoring to make their way amid the rocks up the hill.
“Let each of you take good aim,” cried Roger, “and load and fire as fast as you can.”
The order was obeyed; the officers, who had also fire-arms, setting the example. The Indians, who had expected to surprise the white-faces, found themselves exposed to a blaze of fire from the whole side of the hill, up which they were attempting to climb. Still, urged on by their leaders, they mounted higher and higher, in spite of the many who fell, till they reached the stockades.
Some of the more daring, attempting to hack at the English with their tomahawks, were pierced with pikes and swords wielded by the stout arms of Rolfe, Roger Layton, the Audleys, and Fenton; while their men kept firing away as rapidly as they could reload their weapons.
The Indians fought bravely, but unprepared for so determined a resistance, they at length gave way, and retreated, one driving back an other down the hill. Some were hurled over the rocks by the victorious garrison, who, led by Roger, sprang out beyond the stockades, and in another minute no living Indian remained on the hill.
“Hurrah, lads! we’ve beaten them!” shouted Ben Tarbox, giving a hearty hurrah, such as he would have raised on seeing the flag of an enemy come down in a battle at sea.
“Let no one go beyond the stockades,” cried Rolfe, “we know not what trick they may play us; let us not lose the advantage we have gained.”
He spoke in good time, for Roger and Gilbert were on the point of rushing down the hill in pursuit of the flying enemy. The wild uproar which had lately reigned suddenly ceased; not a sound was heard – even if any of the wounded Indians lived, they did not give vent to their sufferings by uttering a single groan; and, as far as the garrison could discover, the whole body of their foes had retreated to a distance.
The young leaders of the English, aware of the cunning of the Indians, were not to be deceived; every man continued at his post, watching all sides of the hill beneath them on which the attack had been made, as well as the others round which the river flowed.
Gilbert and Fenton had gone to a rock overhanging the stream, a few bushes growing amid the crevices of which afforded them shelter. Thence they could look down into the dark water almost directly below them. Their muskets rested on the rock, so as to command the passage; the only sound heard was the occasional cry of some night-bird, which came from the neighboring forest.
Harry Rolfe, Vaughan, and Roger continued moving round the hill, to be sure that the sentries were keeping a vigilant watch. They knew that the enemy they had to deal with was not to be despised. Although there was no moon, the stars shone down from a cloudless sky, casting a faint light over the plain.
Two hours had gone by; the third was drawing on; Gilbert and Fenton occasionally exchanged a few words in a low whisper, to assist in keeping each other awake.
At length Gilbert was looking out directly ahead of him, when he caught sight, amid the tall grass, of an object slowly approaching. It seemed at that distance like a huge serpent making its way towards the river; now it stopped, and the grass almost hid it from view; now it advanced, getting nearer and nearer the river. Gilbert, afraid to speak, touched Fenton’s arm, and pointed it out to him.
“Is it a panther?” asked Fenton.
“No,” answered Gilbert; “that is the head of a band of Indians: I can trace them following one after the other. Wait till their leader reaches the bank; I will aim at him, and you take the second. Their intention is to swim across and attack us unawares; if they persevere, we will raise a shout which will quickly bring our comrades to oppose them.”
Whether or not Gilbert’s voice reached the keen ears of the Indians it was difficult to say. The dark line remained perfectly quiet, and he almost fancied that he must have been mistaken. At length, however, it again moved on, and he could distinguish the form of an Indian crawling along the ground, followed closely by another advancing in the same manner.
The first reached the bank, when, without even raising himself, be glided down it, and, sinking noiselessly into the water, began to swim across. The next followed in the same manner.
“Now,” whispered Gilbert; and, aiming at the swimmer, he fired. Fenton did the same. A cry rang through the night air; it was the death-shriek of the second Indian. The first disappeared, and Gilbert concluded that he had sunk, shot through the head, beneath the surface.
Rolfe, with Vaughan and Roger, came hurrying to the spot, followed by several other men. Gilbert, pointing to the opposite bank, exclaimed, “There they are!”
A volley was fired. Whether or not any of the Indians were hit, it was impossible to say; probably, finding themselves discovered, they had dispersed on all sides, and, crouching down beneath the grass, fled to a distance.
“We have foiled them again!” exclaimed Gilbert, exultingly; “they will not venture another night attack, I’ve a notion.”
“We must not trust to that,” observed Rolfe; “they are as persevering as they are cunning, and though defeated half a dozen times, they may hope to succeed on the seventh. That was but a small party who have just now retreated, and it may be that the main body are watching their opportunity to attack us on the other side.”
“I believe that you are right,” said Vaughan; “we must make up our minds to keep on the watch till daylight, for even now the enemy may be lurking round us, though we cannot see them.”
Vaughan, while speaking, was standing up on the higher part of the knoll, whence he could view the plain on every side.
“If there should be any Indians near, you are affording them a good mark, brother,” exclaimed Gilbert.
Just as he spoke an arrow whistled through the air close to Vaughan’s head and flew completely over the knoll. It was evidently shot by a person at the base, close down to the river.
“I thought that I had killed the Indian,” exclaimed Gilbert, “but he must have found his way to the shore. If we are quick about it we shall take him prisoner – who will follow me?”
“I will!” and “I will!” cried Fenton and Tarbox, leaping down the hill.
“Stay, stay!” exclaimed Rolfe; “there may be others lurking near.”
Gilbert and his companions did not hear him, and in an instant had reached the bank of the river at the spot from whence they supposed the Indian had shot his arrow. They searched around, however, on every side, but could find no one.
Rolfe, still fearing for their safety, again more peremptorily summoned them back. They returned, much disappointed at not having made the capture they expected.
It was scarcely possible, they thought, that the Indian could have crossed the river, and if so, he must still be lurking concealed beneath a rock or bush on the side of the hill, and might at any moment appear among them, and strike a blow in revenge for those whom they had killed.
To escape this fate, Rolfe ordered the men to stand with their swords drawn and their eyes on every side. Thus a single Indian had the power of keeping the whole camp awake and wearing out their strength.
It still wanted nearly an hour to dawn, and before that time they might be engaged in a more desperate conflict than the first. They could only hope that Canochet would soon arrive to their relief.
They would not fear to encounter ten times as many as themselves in the open ground during the day, but it would be madness to attempt to march through the country when they would be certain to be attacked at night by overwhelming numbers.
With grateful hearts they welcomed the appearance of the dawn, which, as it rapidly increased, exposed to their view the surrounding country and the hill-side, on which lay the bodies of four Indians, who had been shot dead during the attack.
On the opposite side of the river they discovered the body of the native shot by Fenton; none of the bodies, however, as far as could be judged from their costume, appeared to be those of chiefs.
As soon as it was broad daylight Rolfe allowed Gilbert and those who had accompanied him at night to continue their search for the Indian who had shot his arrow at Vaughan. He could nowhere, however, be found, and they concluded, therefore, that he must have floated down the river, and landed at some distance from the hill. Not wishing to allow the dead bodies of the Indians to remain near them, they were dragged to the bank and allowed to float down with the current.
As their provisions were running short, they anxiously looked out for the arrival of Canochet, who, they hoped, would ere this have come to their assistance. Something, they concluded, therefore, had detained him. The fire was now lighted, and they cooked their morning meal.
“Should the chief not soon appear, I propose that we set out without waiting for him,” said Roger; “not finding us at the fort, he will follow in our trail, and after the lessons we have given the Indians, they are not likely again to attack us.”
Rolfe and Vaughan, however, thought it would be more prudent to remain where they were.
“Provided we had food, I should agree with you,” answered Roger, “but starvation is a tough foe to fight against, and for my part I would rather face a whole host of Indians.”
Still, as Canochet might certainly be expected in the course of the day, Rolfe was not moved from his purpose. The party did not fail to keep a bright look-out from their hill; chafing, however, at the delay to which they were subjected.
Gilbert and Fenton especially, with most of the men, were eager to go on. Their last piece of venison was consumed, and they were growing very hungry.
As the two young men were seated together on the top of a rock whence they could look out round them on every side, Fenton exclaimed:
“See, see, Gilbert! yonder is a deer – she just showed her head from behind that thicket on the borders of the forest – there is some sweet grass there probably on which she is browsing. If we could steal up from to leeward, we might get close enough to shoot her before she discovers us.”
Gilbert looked in the direction Fenton pointed, and he, too, seeing the deer, agreed that the opportunity of obtaining a supply of venison was not to be lost.
Slipping down from the rock, they made their way round the base of the hill till they reached a spot directly to leeward of the thicket near which they had seen the deer browsing. From thence they advanced cautiously amid the high rocks and bushes, till they got close to the forest, believing every instant that they should see the animal before them.
“She must have gone round to the other side,” observed Fenton: and they crawled on further. On looking back, Roger observed that they were almost out of sight of the hill.
Still, eager to get the deer, they went further on, when they again caught sight of the head and shoulders of the animal, grazing not where they expected, but a considerable distance off in the forest.
They might hit the creature, but should they miss, it would certainly be lost to them; they therefore determined to get nearer.
At last, Gilbert was rising to his feet to fire, when he heard Fenton utter a cry; bitterly had they cause to regret their folly in having quitted the shelter of the fort.
Why one enemy eats another.
THIS they do, not from hunger, but from great hate and jealousy, and when they are fighting with each other one, filled with hate, will call out to his opponent: Dete Immeraya, Schermiuramme, heiwoe:–“Cursed be you my meat”: De kange Jueve eypota kurine:–“To-day will I cut off your head”: Sche Innamme pepicke Reseagu:–“Now am I come to take vengeance on you for the death of my friends”: Yande soo, sche mocken Sera Quora Ossorime Rire etc.:–“This day before sunset your flesh shall be my roast meat.” All this they do from their great hatred.
Of their plan of campaign when they set out to invade their enemy’s country.
WHEN they desire to make war in an enemy’s country the chiefs gather together and take counsel how best to achieve their purpose, all which they make known in the huts, so that the men may arm themselves. They name the time of the ripening of a certain fruit as the date of their departure, for they have not the art to reckon by the day or year. They also fix their expeditions by the time of the spawning of a fish called Pratti, in their tongue, and the spawning time they call Pirakaen. Then they equip themselves with canoes and arrows, and lay in stores of dried root-meal called Vy-than. After this they enquire of the Pagy, their wise men, whether they shall return victorious. These will say “Yes,” but will warn the enquirers to note well their dreams when they dream of their foes.
If many dream that they are roasting their enemy’s flesh that signifies victory. But if it is their own flesh which they see in the pot, that is an evil omen and they had better stay at home. If their dreams are propitious they arm themselves and prepare much drink in the huts after which they dance and drink with their idols, the Tammaraka, each one beseeching his idol to assist him in catching an enemy. Then they set out, and when they draw near to the enemy’s country, on the night before the attack, the chiefs once more direct their men to remember their dreams.
I accompanied them in one of their expeditions and on the night before they intended to attack, when we were close to the enemy’s country, the chief went up and down in the camp, telling the men to note well their dreams that night, and ordering the young men to set off at daybreak to hunt for game and catch fish, which was done, and the food was cooked. Then the chief summoned the other chiefs to his hut and when they were all seated upon the ground in a circle he gave them to eat, after which they all told their dreams, that is, such dreams as were favourable, and then they danced and made merry with the Tammaraka. They spy out the enemy’s huts at night and attack at dawn. If they take a prisoner who is badly wounded they kill him at once and carry home the meat roasted. Those that are unwounded they take back alive and kill them in the huts. They attack with loud yells, stamping on the ground, and blowing blasts upon trumpets made of gourds. They all carry cords bound about their bodies to make fast their prisoners, and adorn themselves with red feathers so that they may distinguish their friends from their foes. They shoot very rapidly and send fire-arrows into the enemy’s huts to set them alight. And if they are wounded they have their special herbs with them to heal their wounds.
But… Mexicans area made up of Indian blood… When the truth is to be discovered about the Indians, then the Indians claim (supported by the Jews) one cannot dig because one is disturbing Indian graves and dishonoring the dead. The real reason is, one might find skeletons of many white Americans that are the real native Americans.
Legends of the Shawangunk by Philip H. Smith (Pawling, NY: Smith & Co., 1887). Great compendium of information on the Hudson and Delaware River valley Indians and settlers. Shows the tremendous hardships of frontier life, which can scarcely be imagined today. Also, the role of the British Empire in paying Indians to rape, burn and pillage was not censored back then. After all, in the 19th Century, we didn’t have to support them in two world wars, and thus pretend that everything they ever did was pure and golden. (My general view of Britain is that the people are basically of good stock, being a great repository of White blood, but that they were caught up in an evil empire — an artifact of unrestrained capitalism, freemasonry and concealed jew-worship — that was counter-productive to White interests. I probably couldn’t have seen it at the time myself, being caught up in the false pride of uniforms and ceremonies). White scalps went for $5 apiece; the Brits would not pay for negro scalps, so rarely was a negro killed…
P. 3: “Mound builders were a different race than Indians.” Ah, so maybe the Indians weren’t “here first” after all! Note how early this was recognized. We now know that the farther you go back, the more Caucasian the remains get.
P. 5: “Leif Ericson — Landed in Labrador, and explored New England coast, A. D. 1000,” this statement made decades before the Ingstads’ revelations at L’Anse-aux-Meadows. I have several old books that site Ericson’s American voyages as established fact, apparently on the strength of the sagas alone.
P. 11: “. . . criminals from Europe and waifs from streets were brought to help cultivate [tobacco]. They were called ‘indentured servants,’ in reality were slaves, though set free after a certain time.” Mr. Hoffman’s thesis expressed in 1910 (but, to be more accurate, the editors should have said “often set free . . .”.
A HISTORY OF THE MINISINK REGION:
WHICH INCLUDES THE PRESENT TOWNS OF MINISINK, DEERPARK, MOUNT HOPE, GREEN-VILLE AND WAWAYANDA, IN ORANGE COUNTY, NEW YORK, FROM THEIR ORGANIZATION AND FIRST SETTLEMENT TO THE PRESENT TIME; ALSO, INCLUDING A GENERAL HISTORY OF THE FIRST SETTLEMENT OF THE COUNTY
CHARLES E. STICKNEY.
‘White Guilt’ Smashing: Red Man versus White Man-pdf