…Jews have won the right to acquire land, but without the serfs on it, but with the right use of hired workers peasants. Were given the right to a Jewish factory owners, traders and craftsmen to straddle boundaries so…
This is one of the many missing chapters in the above book that is difficult to find in the U.S.A. with all its chapters. Therefore, I have provided a Google translation of this chapter from Polish to English. Not good language, but one gets the drift about the chapter:
THE ALEXANDER PANIOWANIEM
At the end of 1804 years the Committee finished its work elaboration of “Law of the Jews” (known as the “1804 Act”) – the first in Russia legislative bringing about the Jews. The Committee explained that he sees the purpose of his action in bringing Jews to a state better than the existing as well as their orientation towards useful activities, “opening the only road to the benefit of their own … and rejecting everything to do with the way they can turn around, do not use , moreover, to n of any coercive power “1. – The Act included the principle of civil equality of Jews (Article 42): “All Jews living in Russia, as well as those newly settled in either the trade issues coming from other countries, they are free and are under strict supervision of rights on a par with other Russian subjects “. (According to Professor Gradowski comment on statins determination “can not not see the pursuit of these people … join with the people of the whole of Russia”.) 2
“Act” Jews opened more opportunities than the initial proposals Derzhavin; and so, for the establishment of textile and leather factories, the transition to the rural economy in the undeveloped state lands has been offered direct assistance. Jews have won the right to acquire land, but without the serfs on it, but with the right use of hired workers peasants. Were given the right to a Jewish factory owners, traders and craftsmen to straddle boundaries so. “Line of settlement ” for the time necessary for resolving the cases”, which called into question the validity of the recently ordered the “line”. (In the year of publication of the law only promised the abolition of double taxation, but it soon abolished double taxation). Confirmed all the rights of Jews to the inviolability of their property, to personal freedom, to preserve their particular faith and freedom of the Community of equipment, which meant that the organization of communal been left without any significant change (although it is substantially interfere plan the introduction of Jewry in ogólnorosyjską civic community) , with the old law to collect taxes, giving kahałom such unlimited power – but without the right to enlarge the amount of taxes collected by Kahals; and the prohibition of religious orders and the use of excommunication (herem), which meant giving freedom of action of the Hasidim. According to the persistent request was not accepted kahals plan to create a general Jewish schools, but “all the children of the Jews may be accepted and taught, with no difference from other children, in all Russian schools, secondary schools and universities,” and none of the children in these schools do not will, “or in any respect odwodzony of their religion, or forced to learn what is the opposite of the religion and do not even agreeing with her maybe”.
А Jews, “who, by their ability to reach the universities significantly good results in medical, surgical, physics, mathematics and other branches of knowledge, they will have on the university campuses granted titles and positions.”. It is considered necessary to acquire the prevailing language of the Jews in the surrounding villages, the change in external appearance and assimilation of family names. The Committee was finishing law that in other countries, “never been used for this means more moderate, more wyrozumiałych the benefit for them [the Jews] more connected.”
JI Hessen agrees that the Russian “1804 Act” impose fewer restrictions on Jews, than, for example, did the Prussian parliament in 1797 г. I especially deserves credit for the fact that the Jews were and acted personal freedom, which it did not have the freedom of mass multimillion serf peasants of Russia 3 – “Act of 1804”. Is one of the number of acts of tolerance permeated “4.
Then popular magazine “Herald of Europe” wrote: “Alexander knows that defects attributed to the Jewish people, are an inevitable consequence of this rooted oppression that afflicts this nation for many centuries.” The new law was to give useful citizens of Russia and the Jews to offer homeland “6.
However, the most sharply posed the question settled by the “Act” not as unanimously demanded that all Jews – and the Jewish people and members kahals, and Jewish workers Committee. In the “Act” is written: “None of the Jews in any village or settlement can not hold any leases, taverns, pubs and taverns zajezdnych or under his or under someone else’s name, as it can not sell their wines and even live in them “- and had to completely expel the Jewish population of the village before the expiry of three years, that is until the beginning of 1808 years. (Recall that such regulation were still present at Paul in 1797 that is earlier than the project of Derzhavin and they told that it is not about the widespread removal of Jews from the countryside, but “to the size of the Jewish population in the villages did not exceed the economic forces of the peasants, as nutritionally efficient class, and it has been proposed only in order to reduce the number of Jewish settlements in the county. “7) Now was preferred orientation of the majority of Jews to work on a deserted agricultural lands to settle the line, ie. in the New Russia and Astrakhan provinces and the Caucasus, with the release on 10 years from now paid taxes, with the right “to receive from the state treasury credit loan”, with the possibility of repayment by those 10 years of tax exemption; a prosperous and – offered to obtain land for personal rights and hereditary property, including the right to its salaried employees treating 8. Prohibition of trade in wine Committee he said: “As long as the Jews will not taken this job … that just calls them all so many objections and contempt and even hatred of fellow citizens, until the general indignation upon them not cease. “9 А between the “if you can call it by force the move out of the village, which they have for the trouble, when he and the Jews opens a lot of other ways, not only to maintain themselves in the niebiednym condition, but allows them to gain a livelihood tillage in factories, in trades, when together with the guaranteed even the right to own land in the property. so, how can you call to limit an industry practice “compressions” of this nation in the country, where thousands of other classes were open to them, “where gives them the possession of the land in the provinces of fertile lands and sparsely populated …? “10.
Therefore presents strong arguments. However, in a statement Hessen’s Committee “naive look … at the base of the economic life of the nation … that economic phenomena can be modified purely mechanical manner by orders.” 11 Jewish Home has estimated the proposals remove Jews from the village pub and non-practicing crafts, the “eternal lessons” of the Jews 12, as horrible and cruel decision. (And in the same way reproached it for over a half century Jewish historiografia).
According to the liberal views of Alexander I, his benevolent attitude towards the Jews, his steadfast character, his little tenacious will (probably for life of deprived, by the very fact of accession to the throne after the death of his father was killed in an attack) – certainly proclaimed Jews from moving out come to the village and the effect would not be vigorously extended in time its definitive introduction of even a peaceful situation of the state. А here, almost at the same time for «Act 1804 years” loomed war with Napoleon, she began on the fields of Europe. And this Commission has dealt kindly to the Jews on the model of Napoleon, who created in Paris Sanhedrin of the Jewish deputies. “The whole Jewish thing suddenly took an unexpected turn. Bonaparte founded in Paris gathering Jews to be the most important goal to provide a variety of benefits to the Jewish people and the establishment of relationships between Jews, spread throughout Europe.” And, in 1806 Alexander I ordered to create a new committee “for the orientation, if you need to undertake some specific ways and to postpone the transfer of Jews from the countryside” 13. It was necessary that the Russian government and in no way distinguished himself oppressed Jews.
The planned 1804 Jews from moving out of the village should have started in 1808. But there were still and practical difficulties. And so in 1807 to Alexander I started coming in the memorials of the need for the postponement of the move out. Then it came out the highest decree saying that “let the whole Jewish society … choose deputies and present through them … ways that they themselves deem najpomyślniejszego more convenient to carry out the provisions of the” Law of December 9, 1804 г. “. Election of such Jewish deputies in the western guberniom came to fruition, and their positions were presented to St. Petersburg. “Deputaci, of course, spoke for the Jews to move out of the village has been postponed for the long term”. (At the same time raised was considered such a thing, that in the villages of innkeepers have free housing given to them by the landowners, and places transfers in towns and cities for housing the Jews will have to pay.) And the minister of internal weld reported that the transfer of the Jews, the current place in the villages, on state lands “will need to be a few decades, and this is due to excessive them [the Jews] numbers” 14. And at the end of 1808 years had to pause article Emperor forbade Jews making rent and dealing with trade in wines and vodka, while ordering the Jews left in the existing locations “pending orders in the future in this respect.” 16 In 1809 was established a new “Committee Senator Pop” for tracing issues from the circle of Jewish problems in dealing with the message of Jewish MPs. This committee “considered essential to a firm stance to” move out interrupt taken in saving Jews the right to rent and the right to trade vodka “17 . The Committee worked three years, presented his paper The Lord of the March 1812 year. Aleksandr I did not consider this paper: he did not want to undermine the importance of previous propositions and apparently drifted in the direction of the defense of the peasants, “he would be willing to ease the removal method, but in no way intend to depart from it.” 17 – However, already started a great war with Napoleon, the European war, and so Alexander moved his attention to European affairs – and never “move out anymore was not undertaken as regulating the residence of the Jews for all their” line of settlement “and only appeared in separate commands for some of the village. “18
During the war, according to one source, the Jews were the only residents who fled before the French army in the woods, or in other places. In the area of Vilnius refused to submit to the command of the Napoleonic join the French army, but the horse feed and food delivered to the French army, without a word of opposition; though in some places they had forced the French to use abstractions 19. From another source, you can learn that “the Jewish people suffered great suffering because of Napoleon’s soldiers pranks” and that “many synagogues were burned.” The same source states and other details: “Substantial assistance has provided the Russian army during the war, the so-called” Jewish mail “, created by Jewish traders and forwarding the information to the unusual, such as the time, speed (as” postal stations “serve the inn)” ; even “the Jews were used as messengers for establishing communication between the branches of the Russian army.” When the Russian army returned, “the Jews of delight greeted the Russian army, the soldiers were taking bread and wine”. Then even the Grand Duke, and the future Nicholas I, wrote in his diary: “The incredible thing is that they [the Jews] were in 1812. We are particularly faithful and even helped where they could, at the risk of his own life 20”.
“It is known such an event from the war that the French retreat crucial moment in time to join the crossing of the Berezina, local Jews notified the Russian leadership on the French site planned to cross the river. And it was a successful run general Lorance – he knew that the Jews news report disclosed Russians and Jews false message about where the crossing, and the French passed over, it is understood elsewhere) 21.
Upon connection to Russia after 1814 under the scepter of the central Polish Russian got more than 400,000 Jews and Jewish issue for the Russian government became even more urgent and more complicated. In 1816 the State Council of the Polish Kingdom, which in many cases the state has retained its separate existence, decided to start Jews move out of the village allowing the Jews to stay in the villages only to perform a simple agricultural work and without recourse to Christians. And so (Members of the Warsaw Kahal an audience with Emperor mode almost immediately), Alexander ordered the Jews to leave the existing places of residence in Poland (as in Russia), and allowed them to trade and vodka, but with only ban: not able to trade in vodka for involving debt odpracowywaniu 22.
It is true that in the Senate documents from 1818 г. appeared again and these paragraphs: “Remove ruinous for the peasants execution, carried out by landowners for nieodpracowanie Jewish debts, as a result of these debts peasants are often forced to sell the last remnants of his property … Jews, hiring a tavern, do not let the peasants to provide interest-bearing loan money and give the peasants wine on credit and peasants prohibit taking too long cattle or other necessary peasant things. “23
Very characteristic for the entire reign of Alexander is that it does not occur performance of the adopted solutions; the rules were announced, but it did not result in action: there was no effective control of their execution. For example: “Regulations of 1817 on the conditions of alcoholic beverages in the province wielkoruskich, Jews were forbidden to carry distillery, however, already in 1819 г. ban was lifted” – until – “will in the future to improve the Russians as masters in the distillery. “24
It is understood that the extermination of the Jewish craft distillers in rural villages of the West Country was resistance from the Polish landowners, as most interested in maintaining the rent and its benefits, and the Russian government did not yet dare to act against the landlords. However, in Czernichowska province, where there was no age
landowning roots – Jewish craft distillers, managed to stop this practice in 1821, when the province was formed when a poor harvest and the Governor reported that “the Jews maintain a heavy subjugation of peasants and Cossacks state.” 25 In 1822 the prohibition of distilling the Jews took over and Poltava guberniya; 1823 – partly extended to the same prohibition on governorates Mogilev and Vitebsk. And that bans have been detained as a result of intense intercession from kahals.
And so, the battle of craft distillery through disposals Jews from moving out of the village, the truth – the whole ćwierćwiekowe reign of Alexander I have not even started.
However, brewing was not the only type of rent from landowners in the “line of the settlement.” Leaseholders took on redemption and various sectors of the economy, as a separate utility area, mills, fish ponds, bridges, and it’s usually to the detriment of the landlord on the property. It was then taken under the lease of not only the serfs (such cases from the late eighteenth century. Have become more frequent 26), but even the “peasant churches” that is, Orthodox churches, and shall notify many authors authors – NI Kostomarov, М. N. Katkov, W. W. Shulgin. Те temples belonging to the property were considered personal property of landowners-Catholics, and “being in the role of Jews admitted leaseholders the right to charge money from the faithful visiting the church as well as in the celebration of worship. The baptism, wedding, funeral need had to get permission from the “Jew” for the appropriate bribe “,” małorosyjskie historical songs are filled with bitter complaints of “Jewish leaseholders, encumber the population.” 27
Russian governments have in mind, and such a danger that the rights of leaseholders had no direct impact on the personality of the peasants, and through it and on the attitude of the peasants to work … “that the Jews did not use the personal effort of the peasants, and that they, as non-Christians, through the lease of not able to completely take over the serfs peasants “. And such mastery over the peasants of the Jews has been consistently and repeatedly prohibited to the decree of 1784, the provisions senackimi years 1801 and 1813 speaking to “the Jews villages and hungry peasants landowners under the guise and under any name changed not ruled and not their disposal.” 28
However, the ingenuity and the Jews and landowners ago remedied. In 1816, the Senate revealed that “the Jews found a way to wield as крестенций” (krjestjencij), that is after the agreements with landowners on payment for their labor, peasant landowner managed collection “of the fields sown by the peasants of their … the seed that farmers should thresh and deceive the distillery which the Jews in arendzie. Hay also had zwozić peasants and must care for oxen, left behind for them to obroku. this occurred giving the Jews through the village workers and carts. Jews completely takowymi estates and landowners speak … to give the Jews pay for the lease of estates cast in, and for the labor of their peasants under the name крестенций (krjestjencij), sell the Jews, with the collection payment, in whole future yields on the fields sown in their estates. Therefore, you can say that the way to guide the their peasants hunger. “29
And in such a way that captures the lease of the peasants themselves not as just “крестенция” (krjestjenicę) – and the result is the same.
Well, not looking at all the prohibitions, the practice of “крестенций” (krjestjencij) stubbornly persistent.
The unexpected complexity of this lies in the fact that many landowners themselves fell into a long-Jews in their leaseholders – the money received from the Jews by giving them power of attorney to manage their assets and thus the Jews and fully ruled these estates, and by the way and work serfs. But when in 1816 the Senate “has decided to pick up the Jews estates”, recommending them to the care of returning the borrowed sum. Then they carried kahals deputies of allegiance request to lift the command – and chief manager of foreign affairs spiritual beliefs prince. А. N. Golitsyn Sovereign convinced that “it is unfair to accuse one class guilt and punishment, slowing from the” landowners and officials.
Earthlings “could still win if they refuse to pay them for крестенций data (krjestjenicę) capital and the same крестенцию (krjestjenicę) will turn to their advantage,” giving the land to the Jews, against the law, being obliged by law to pay them money for Taz крестенцию (krjestjenicę) 30.
Which in those years in military service in the western provinces of the future Decembrist PI Pestel, certainly not the defender of autocracy, but ardent Republican, wrote some of his observations about the local Jews. These observations Pestel incorporated in the initial part of its program to develop the state (“recommendation to temporarily top-down government”). “Looking for the Messiah to Jews as temporary citizens of the country in which they reside, and therefore currently not under any circumstances want to deal with farmers, artisans and peasants have for partly contempt, and most of which only a trade.” – “The Jewish priests, rabbis called, maintain their nation apart incredible dependence by prohibiting, as a condition of their faith, reading anything else besides the Talmud … The nation is not looking for enlightenment, will forever be under the power of superstition”; ”
Addiction Jewish rabbis goes so far that every command issued by the Rabbis meet the holy and without a word of opposition “.” The close relationship between Jews gives them the opportunity to rebounds and collecting large sums of money … for their use on all sorts of bribes to bribe the chief of the to commit numerous abuses that would pożyteczne30 Jews. “As they imperceptibly and how easily become the owners of the” visible in these provinces, where they have their residence (off-line settlement – translator’s note). All trade are there in your hands and there are few peasants, którzyby using debt does not consist in their władzyik and therefore they are ruining the country horrible way, wherein they reside. “-” Before the government (Catherine) gave him a lot of beneficial rights and privileges strengthening the evil that they do, “and that, for example – the right to not incur rekruty (haul for 25 years – interpreter note), the right to not reporting offices of the dead, the right to litigate each other rabbinical courts, and the” in addition, they have the same rights as other benefit Christian nations. “And ‘quite clearly one can watch that Jews make up in the country, so to speak, its own special and quite separate state and at the same time in Russia now enjoy even more rights than Christians themselves. “So “can not continue, the order of things strengthening hostile to refer to Jews against Christians and the positioning them in a situation incompatible with the social order in the country.” 31
In the last years of the reign of Alexander I came to fruition sharper economic bans and other regulations against Jewish activity. In 1818, the Senate went out a decree stating that in the future, “Christians, Jews, under any circumstances and in any case, the pension is not to indulge too long.” 32 In 1819, there is a decree on termination of “work and services performed by the peasants and the people manorial Jews” 33 The same Golitsyn reported to the committee of ministers that “Christians living in the homes of the Jews,” not just forget and remain the performance of their duties Christian faith but accept Jewish customs and rituals “34. and for this reason she left the decision to” not authorizing the employment of Jews Christians to the service of the Jewish homes “35. with this taken into account, and that” it would be useful and for the poor Jews, who could replace Christian service. “36
However, this did not happen. (And so it is surprising that in the urban mass was Jewish and poverty and misery, “for the most part poor Jews barely raisers food for themselves” 37, but I’ve never found a situation that the poor Jews are involved in the work waiting in the homes of Christians. This means that were constantly running social unit and received funds for survival of connected communities).
However, already in 1823 allowed the Jews-hire to work arendarzom Christians. So the “strict compliance with the ban,” for example tillage ban Christians from the Jews, “the … hardly occurred to the effect in practice.” 38
In these a year, in response to the rapid growth of the sect subotników in Yaroslavl, Samara, Tilsit and other provinces, were adopted stricter rules on the lines of settlement (except areas designated lines Jews were not allowed to settle permanently reside interpreter for note). And yes, “in 1821 the Jews, accused of” severe subjugation “of peasants and Cossacks, were expelled from the rural village of Czernichowska province, in 1822 – from the village of Poltava province.” 39
In 1824 Alexander I, noticing, taking a trip in the mountains of the Urals that at mines
“a significant number of Jews engaged in illicit buying precious metals being corrupt local residents to the detriment of the State and the detriment of the owners of income”, and for this reason he ordered, “that the Jewish presence was tolerated by no means so in state and private mines throughout the mining industry” 40.
At the same time the state fund suffered great losses because of contraband and smuggling along the western border of Russia; smuggling of duty-free goods and products in both parties and the trade in them spread on a large scale. Governors reported that smuggling deal mainly Jews, as once densely populating the border regions. In 1816 issued a command for Volyn province to deport all Jews from the border bandwidth of 50 versts, on the execution of the command was given three weeks time. This displacement of the border province of Volyn lasted five years and was carried out only in part. In 1821, the new governor allowed the Jews to return to their seats. In 1825 came into effect a resolution of common, already extremely cautious – only subject to evacuation of the Jews, who are not already enrolled as belonging to the local Kahal, as well as those who were not, in the border belt, their nieruchomości.41. То is now intended to displace only accidentally found through. Anyway, the whole thing was not consistent.
At the same time the Regulation of 1804, his point about the deportation of Jews from the villages of the western governments, before state authorities faced the question: where to resettle? Towns and cities are densely populated already, and the density already deepened the cruel competition in the small-scale trade with extremely weak development of productive work. As you know – south of Ukraine was empty and wide, little populated and fertile soil having Novorossiya. Very noticeable was the point of being a state based on the fact that induce the expulsion of Jews from the village unproductive mass cultivation in the New Russia. Ten years ago, back Catherine tried to move the Jews realize that introduced the double tax on the Jews, but allowed them to entirely rid of this tax by moving to New Russia from taking up farming. However, this double tax (as it is a number of passages in Jewish historians) was not real tax if only because there was no record of the Jewish population, such data have only Kahal and hiding from the authorities, more than half of the number of Jews. (From 1808 years the state power has ceased to even ask Kahals of the Jewish population). Anyway, this tax credit from Catherine, one of the Jews to move not prompted.
Then it and specifically only for the Jews, was extracted in New Russia 30,000 tithes earth “at first sight”, it is the provision of subsequent regularization of the area as needed. The government proposed Jewish displaced large tax breaks and other privileges as the allocation of land in the New Russia in the hereditary possession (not on an individual property), the allocation to the family after 40 tithes state land (average, throughout the rest of Russia, peasant land ran consisted of several tithes, rarely reached the size of ten), cash loans for the ride and run the farm (purchase of cattle, livestock, and other necessities), the return of a loan was initiated after 10 years from the settlement and was to be completed in the next 10 years, was offered to displaced wooden huts, built in advance of the arrival of the displaced (in these areas not only peasants but even some landowners have houses made of clay), exemption from all taxes for 10 years, giving personal freedom displaced (it happened in the days of the serfdom), and ensuring full protection from the authorities 42. (And the conscription of Jews did not apply since the Act of 1804 monetary compensation for the exemption from this requirement was part of the taxes.)
Enlightened Jewish activists, then still very few (Notkin, Levinson), also supported the state initiative – “the transfer should be done by the use of incentives clearly and not through coercion” – perfectly understand the need for people to take their productive work.
The whole eighty years old – and tiring – epic cultivation by the Jews in Russia presented in the volume of hard work WN Nikitina Jew, as a child when taken by Cantonists
(кантонисты) (there received the name), who spent quite a few years, the study of very extensive archives, nowhere unpublished official reports to St. Petersburg from the New Russia. All of these reports are abundantly represented in his book contains a great accumulation of documents and statistics, with multiple repetition and sometimes contradictory reports of numerous inspectors operating in different, sometimes distant from each other, years of meticulous tables are not always full, because after their drafting them, no one looked and not corrected. This data is left to our own, here very brief review, the material extremely rich. On the basis of this study, often quoting, we will try to draw conclusions as widely as possible and as accurate as possible.
The government’s aim was granted Nikitin, in addition to the extensive use of state tasks, sparsely populated lands and distribution of Jews in the wider space than they lived so far, to attract them to the physical productive work and move them from “harmful crafts”, at which they uprawnianiu massively “willy-nilly without load and not very pleasant life serfs. “”The government … offered them to work in agriculture”, with “a view to improving their existence … The government … not the least bit wabił promises Jews, on the contrary, by all means refrain resettlement of more than 300 families a year” 43, Indeed the whole resettlement was inhibited necessity to build homes destined for displaced people and for that reason the government invited the Jews to, so far, they sent their delegates to the New Russia for the diagnosis of local conditions.
This idea is in its assumptions was good, but it was not suited disposition of Jewish displaced ii candidates also failed due to the low organizational capacity of the Russian administration. The idea of such a solution was no hope for the success of even the reason that agriculture is the art of the lid; to the mastery of this art comes through the generations, and acting against and no interaction of people fail to fill the earth with success.
As for the Jews in the New Russia 30,000 tithes, so then for decades they were untouchable as designed just for them. (Columnist IG Orsha court later ruled that the Jewish farming could be successfully carried out only by giving the Jewish state lands in the place of their current residence, or near, ie on in Belarus, where rural life was well known to them 44. But the free state land Belarus was not, for example, in the province of Grodno found that only 200 tithes of such land – and in harsh, barren land, “where the entire population has suffered from a poor harvest,” 45).
However, “The Jews do not hurry to become farmers.” Wanting to move was in the beginning just three dozen families. The Jews had hoped that something else will change and there will be no effect of moving away from the village of West Country, which the tsarist order 1804 was marked by the three-year deadline for its completion, and the beginning of the move could not be seen. But a disastrous final date, ie the date January 1, 1808, and began discharging the Jews of the villages and towns in convoys. At the beginning of 1806 arose among the Jews move in the direction of transmission, especially since the news spread about the benefits arising from the move. Now began to apply for a transfer of mass, “tore it how the Promised Land … just as their ancestors from the land of the Chaldeans to Canaan”, and even “go there secretly groups without permission and even without ID cards “. (А at times that you’ve obtained an ID card to sell to people from another group of displaced people, and myself were making a new document stating that his evidence lost). Who choose to do the move “from one day to the number multiplied out,” and all the “persistently asked for the land, a house to live and food” 46 “.
Willing to relocate was more than assumed in the Kherson province Admissions Office for Jews – Displaced was ready to accept. Do not keep up with the building of houses, digging wells, and this was a great steppe obstacle distance, no construction foremen, doctors and veterinarians. The government “is not skimping money seemed reasonable command, and he was fond of displaced persons,” but the governor asked Richelieu о 1807 settlement to reduce the rate of 200 – Complain that they “were brought to najżałośniejszej situation” – and it is really so, remained in the same rags. I also see the inspectors, but also describe the cause “did not have clothes from the reasons of laziness, because they do not keep sheep, do not sow flax and hemp” and the women spun and wove not. (And so ended his report of one of the inspectors: the Jews did not cope with the economy because of “getting used to a carefree life, little solicitude and lack of experience in rural work.” However, the same inspector considers it fair to add: “Tilling should prepare teenage years, Jews, wydelikaconym prosperous life for 45 and 50 years old, can not be done quickly farmers’ 49).
Treasury expenditure intended for the settlers, exceed double, or even triple, scheduled for this purpose means, all the time they need to supplement resulted. Richelieu claimed that “the complaints are coming not only from those who like work, not from good hosts” although in Another report notes, “because of greater misery for them from the very beginning of their settlement, there was not one year, which could reassure them by a decent harvest.” 60
+ Petersburg responded to reports of a number of facts deliberate evasion of Jews from agriculture as follows: “The government is dedicated to them with the hope of state benefits to farmers, they were not the same name, but with a real job.” “Some of the settlers, without persuading them to diligence, may well be a loss for the State.” 61
The influx of displaced Jewish state bill to New Russia, not guided and protected by the construction of houses, was temporarily suspended in 1810. А in 1811. The Senate restored the right of Jews to trade in wine estates in the province of state are in the line of settlement, and when it became known in the New Russia, is “touched in many desire to become farmers and, without looking at bans releasing them go without written permission and innkeepers are the landowners and public housing. “- К 1812 revealed that the officially going to settle 848 families were only 538, the absence was ascertained only for 88 families. Some left for crafts in Kherson, Nikolaev, Odessa, even going to a Polish), and the other quite disappeared. The whole experience in itself “was an entirely new phenomenon, not only in Russia, but, apparently, in the whole of Europe.” 62
Now the government made the determination that “after recognizing in them (the Jews) to practice the role of disgust, the total ignorance of the steps needed to keep the farm and after establishing negligence supervisors” recommended resettlement “caused great confusion and therefore can be considered worthy of compassion Jews.” But I also wondered: how to secure the return of the national debt from those who were allowed to unsubscribe from the state of agriculture, how to remove, without burdening the public purse, the shortage of those who are farmers, how to reduce the misery of the people suffering from great poverty ki brought to finality. Incidentally, it is at the supervisors were not only neglect – were sloppiness, absenteeism, lateness of the issuance of the grain and the measures needed in agriculture. Supervisor looked indifferently to sell the property by the Jews, as well as taking bribes for permission to remove themselves from the settlement ki even the main workers in the family, often causing the destruction of the economy.
In the state of the Jewish colonies and, after years of 1810 – 1812 difficult to see improvement. “Tools have fallen from legs, broken or indebted by the Jews”, “oxen were cut again, stolen and sold,” “seeded the field late” (waited for the heat), sow “bad seeds” and how you can be close to their homes, constantly one and the same place, not plowed fallow, and “others sowed at 5, and at times that and more at the same time wyoranym field” and plating not use crop rotation. One year in a row was “insufficient harvest,” and again, “the seeds have not earned.” (But actually, it’s pretty bad harvests settlers, because they then acquire the right to reject a.) Do not ensure cattle. Their herds, they gave a lease, and oxen, “hired to … as carriers, oxen tortured, not fed or slaughtered one another and exchanged for food, then reporting them as dead – and the authorities or issued them new or oxen were among them to pay for work. “I do not care about the establishment of permanent pens for cattle, which derive from cattle at night it would be difficult; nights only destiny for a long sleep. Herding cattle to appoint only the most lazy children or who are naturally bad oversee the whole herd, “and in the holidays and Saturdays completely expel the flock without shepherds (with them on Saturday, even chasing thieves are not allowed). I complained about those of their co-religionists (a they were few) who have worked and obtain an excellent harvests; this could accrue and ancient Jewish curse
– A curse, but that “the authorities show that the Jews are capable of cultivation and the authority will find a way to force the remaining Jews to contest the farmer”. And they “were reluctant to cultivation … secretly decided to indulge in a little tillage, growing niepookrywaniem to their needs to bear witness to his incapacity”, they wanted to come back, “especially for the wine trade to it again allowed their co-religionists”. – Cattle, tools and seeds bought them several times, as well as they were given no end loans for food. “Most of them many, received a loan and being considered for the team, appeared in the estate just in time cash grants, and then … went to … the money to the surrounding towns and villages there giving crafts “,” … the land given to them traded “, releasing on vagrancy, lived” in the Russian settlements for several months, and it is usually the most necessary working time “,” food of peasants gained fraud … “. Tables check more than once show that half of the families of settlers is in arbitrary dismissal or dismissal of the official authorization, and many families lost without trace .. (Here – completely undeveloped village in Kherson province Izralijewka, “the settlers were self-sufficient, they thought that they have the right to engage in light crafts crafts, and made only for the settlement to benefit from tax” of 32 families from the village remained in place 13 you sow convenience only, the others “were involved in inn-keeping in neighboring counties”). As well as numerous inspections indicate further that “Jewish abhorrence of women to agricultural activities particularly disturbed … well-being” of Jewish settlers. “Jewish women have begun to accustom themselves to the cultivation soon evaded from this activity.” – “By getting married Jewish women, their parents conclude contracts with future in-law marriage in which they agreed that their daughter will never be forced either to field work, or even to carry water, paint chambers and chat, and to those classes of workers employed by persons who can simply prepare them for Christmas day, “costumes, fox and hare Szuby, fur muffs, wreaths on their heads, and even nizali pearls.” these conditions forced the young people “to meet the desires of their wives ruin economies” they “stuff for przepychowi and waste “, silk, silver and gold, – then the settlers, even when others do not have winter clothes. extremely early marriages was due to extremely rapid growth of the Jewish population, as opposed to the settlers of other nationalities.” At the same time separation from the family of young babies will decrease in the number of family members who are in such a reduced number can not cope with the work on the farm. Again, due to lack of homes, the density of several families in a few homes contributes to the formation of sloppy life and scurvy. (А other women marry for the townspeople and they completely leave the estate) 85.
E-filing reported that the Jewish settlers from different colonies, repeating the same action on the steppe land that is “so hard, that it has to be four pair of oxen to plow” permanent crop failures, the lack of water, for lack of fuel for heating houses, the poor and the climate which will lead to devastating diseases, hail, locusts on. Also reported to have been exaggerated complaints about inspectors who with particular consideration proved to be unreasonable. The settlers at the “slightest dissatisfaction immediately they spread their complaints”, “always expanding its pretensions” but “when it turned out that their complaints were based on truth – received by the office, reparation”. They just did not seem right to complain about any difficulties in their religious worship and settlements founded in school (8 colony until 1829 years employed 40 teachers.) 56.
However, writes Nikitin, including the steppe, in the same year, on the same fallow, at the same locusts, machined part and German colonists, and Mennonites, and Bulgarians – poverty lived in the same barren years and passed the same disease but always had bread, healthy cattle, lived in beautiful homes, with many economic buildings, they had beautiful gardens, and the houses kept in the green. (Difference in particular stood out in the eyes when the individual German colonists invited to live in the Jewish colonies shining example of that here and passed on their experience. Then the German farm stand at a distance and at first sight). In the vicinity of Jewish settlements and villages were Russian and there were better harvest from the harvest of the Jews. (Besides these others – have managed to borrow at more affluent Jews and the execution of the long wild robots.) Russian peasants, Nikitin notes explain “the menacing feudal oppression them right … got used to everything and stoically endured every misfortune” . And here the Jewish colonists, with numerous losses incurred due to various misfortunes п, “steppe expanse … a little rescued them from everywhere attracted many runaway serfs who Rendered colonists settled: the crackdown – robbery, theft of cattle and” red cocks “and for the hospitality – urgent, ordinary physical with their work. The owners of land the Jews, as people are smart and practical, with the same self-defense gracious salute greeted the tramp, tramp what they willingly helped them to plow, sow and reap, “and even, for better concealment, joined the Jewish religion.” Cases are disclosed in “- and in 1820 government forbade the Jews to Christians to adopt the service 87.
At that time, the 1817 coming to an end the period of 10 – year tax exemption for Jewish displaced persons and now had to align them with state taxes peasants. I started coming collective requests from Jewish settlers, but also from the officials, о extension of tax credits for 15 years. It prince Golitsyn, a personal friend of Alexander I, the Minister of Education and Religious Affairs, also dealing with all issues concerning the Jews, the Jews moved the postponement decision yet taxes for 5 years and pay the debts for the loan – for 30 years. “For the glory of St. Petersburg authorities, it should be noted that even before any requests Jews do not become without attention.” 88
Between these requests Jews Nikitin was “extremely characteristic, because of its content, quote:” Experience has shown that while agriculture is necessary for humanity, it shall be considered a simple job that requires a lot of physical strength rather than refined mind and because this occupation, around the globe, and always gave only people people who in their simplicity, they were not capable of such mental effort you have to take people from the class of industrialists or traders. These and the last, as their profession requires great skills and education, and they were always the main source of enrichment powers, all the times were distinguished and imbued with special reverence before putting them farmers … but libelous reports of Jews to the Russian government have led to the deprivation of liberty of the Jews to their previous activities, namely trade and force them to assume the role of black agricultural nation. Expelled from the countryside in the years 1807 – 1809, the number of over 200,000 people, “(and they were for the most part traders in wine),” were forced to go to settle in places … not inhabited “. I asked why they would be able to be re-entered into the state, “the townspeople, with the right to possess identity cards without limiting freedom of movement from place to place” 89.
Completely clear and understood wording.
From 1814 to 1823 years Jews not only farms that did not develop, but chyliły to fall. Statistical tables showed that every statistical Jew – settler was working less than 1/3 of the tithe. А with “their tendency to avoid hard work” (according inspectors), to obtain an livelihood rather trade and crafts 60.
Half a century later, a Jewish journalist Orszanskij IG explained that: “It is natural that the Jews, the transfer here to deal with farming, saw before him the vast and unoccupied space for any industrial activity actions, rushed to take their customary and favorite job, which enabled them to even greater “harvest in” than those for which they could be counted as employed in agriculture … so how can require them to only dealt with farming, if it was known that this activity is not bring them any benefits and fails “? – “With a strong attractant them (Jews) abnormally active operations in emerging cities.” 61
The then Russian authorities the issue differently represented Jews later “may be useful farmers”, while the “recipe to states townspeople themselves, they will increase the number of urban parasites.” 62 Thus, for 9 of the Jewish colony was utilized in 300 thousand rubles – it was a huge sum at that time expressed in kopiejkach prices.
Here in 1822 he passed the new 5 – year term deferral of taxes, and here the Jewish state farms require a further tax incentives and subsidies involved: revealed “a very poor situation of the settlers’ deepening with nested among them, parasitism, and the spread of diseases resulting from your high mortality. Lasting for several years, crop failures and ignorance, among the Jews settlers, knowledge in the field of agricultural work deepened their misfortune, and even poverty 63.
А occurred between the years of good harvest. The years 1816, 1817, 1822 was also successful for the Jews. So gradually the young Jewish generation farming habits appear. Seeing that harvests, after all, are achievable, settlers began to call each other compatriots from Belarus and Lithuania, where at that time came a year of crop failure. And there began a Jewish family, with legal permits and arbitrary trips, pouring into the New Russia, and above all, and for this reason that in 1821 threatened the final, so far attempted to effect removal of the West Country village as well and that, that in the year 1821, as already mentioned, was marked by a definite date of termination of the Jewish Czernichowska distillery in the province, and later still in the next three provinces. And the West Country were playing governors asking, without thinking about it in the New Russia was still reserved the land intended for Jewish settlers. With the New Russia was notified that the settlers can take no more than 200 families a year, and now their number reached 1,800 families (although some was lost somewhere in their honor and also resided on the way). Now there has been a refusal of granting state aid to displaced (though still behaved 10 – year tax relief). It turned out that Kahals become interested to send, for their community, most poor Jews to settle in the new place, and in the future to reduce their own taxes and sourcing partially displaced from the communities. (They sent and the sick, and old, and large families with a small number of people able to work, and that those who do not quite interested in farming. When the government began to require written consent sent to resettlement, that were sent in all the sheets with nothing significant signatures ). From the 435 families who came to the area Jekaterynosławia to 1823, only two families could develop and survive on the total self-supporting. A motivated by “boundless hope of the Jews in the state aid which, as it turned out, it was easy to pick up new arrivals”. From Belarus in the course of 1822 came to New Russia 1016 families, colonies quickly filled temporarily protect settlers in them. Since excessive narrowness and dirt have developed the disease. In this situation, in 1823, Alexander I forbade the further transfer of the Jews. А in 1824 and 1825, new crop failures and Jewish settlers began again to support loans (but not to kindle hope, hidden these loans before the settlers themselves allegedly using unauthorized spending by inspectors settlers under the guise of performing some useful work). This again issued identity cards allowing you to switch to the cities. О start paying taxes, even by those settlers who lived in the colonies for more than 18 years, there could be no question.
And at the same time and with this, in 1823, “the highest decree went … to the provinces Belarusian Jews for 1824 years discontinue any craft winowarskie and distilling and to refrain from holding Arend and postal stations” and the 1825 “finally crossed over” to towns and cities. “The transfer of Jews here started. Moved to January 1824, “about twenty thousand men.” The Lord then asked to “draw attention to the ways of making crafts and food sufficient” Jews while you move them, “so that they, becoming without shelter, they were not subjected to loads in this situation resulting from the need of their food,” But, although it was created for that matter committee comprised the following until 4 ministers at the emperor Alexander (“ministerial committee” – now 4 – you have to
Jewish affairs), it has not resulted in subsidies from the state treasury, nor improved the administration, nor the changes in the social structure of the Jewish community, which outwardly remodel was backbreaking task.
And in this, as in many cases above, you can see the Emperor Alexander I, instability and lack of consistent gusts will (as well as his inaction in relation to already clearly developed secret societies, preparing to overthrow the throne). In any case, you do not need to hunt in his decisions, lack of kindness to the Jews. On the contrary, he was a genuinely accessible to their requests and their needs. During the war, 1812 – 1814 at the Headquarters of the Army remained Jewish deputies – Zyndjelja Zonnenberg and Lejzer Dillon, who “courted Jewish matters.” (Dillon, moreover, was soon put on trial for misappropriation of a quarter million rubles of state money and the use of extortion in relation to landowners. And Zonnenberg, on the contrary, long remained in the vicinity of Lords). In St. Petersburg for several years, with the command Alexander (1814), the Jewish deputation has worked for the was carried out among the Jews fundraising because “big secret waiting to spend money in government institutions.” Those deputaci sought to obtain permission for the Jews in Russia to “trade in wines and vodka and brewing”, “to obtain tax relief,” “remission of arrears,” the right to remove restrictions on the number of Jewish members of the municipalities. The Lord graciously listened to it all, and many promised – but never carried out.
In 1817 the London Missionary Association came to Russia Lewis input lawyer, defender of equality of Jews, in a special order to get acquainted with the situation of the Jews in Russia, spoke directly with Alexander I, introduced him to his petition. “Imbued with convincing that the Jews represent a royal nation.” Entrance to say that all the Christian nations, as obtaining the salvation of the Jews, show them the most assessed following the great honors and make the benefits. “This argument was very clearly felt by Alexander I in his last period of life running in the mystical ecstasies. His and his government headed concern “not to touch the hand of religious beliefs careless” Jews.
Aleksandr highly respected old people of the Old Testament, his religion, and sympathized with his current situation. And hence his utopian as these people seek peaceful means to move to the New Testament. For this purpose, with the participation of the emperor in 1817 was founded “The Association of Israeli Christians”, it is the Jews who converted to Christianity (not necessarily going to Orthodoxy). These converted Jews received a number of positive benefits – can freely anywhere in Russia “to deal with trade and crafts, not signing up to the guild and the guild, were released were for ever, and his offspring, from civic and military service.” However, this association was no inflow of new Jewish converts and broke up 68.
Kindness of Alexander I to the Jews must translate its great confidence in preventing consideration of emerging accusations against them for ritual murder. (such an accusation were not known in Russia and never appeared after the partition of Polish and came from there. In Poland itself emerged in the sixteenth centuries and gave up there with Europe, where for the first time were recorded in England in 1144 years, and then repeated in the twelfth-XIП centuries in Spain, France, England, Germany is. With these accusations fought and popes and kings but the prosecution did not stop, and the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries). The first trial of this indictment occurred in Sienno near Vitebsk in 1799 and the accused were released because of insufficiency of evidence. Grodno process, sued for the same reason, and (in 1816), not only that it has been interrupted “the supreme command,” but bowed denominational minister, Golitsyn, for circulation wszystkicm provincial authorities ordered speaking clearly so you do not blame the Jews “of killing Christian children “without clear evidence, and single reports” 70. in the years 1822 to 1823 was still considered one such case in Weliże, also in the province of Vitebsk. Vitebsk in 1824 the court decided that the Jews, “even in the face of certificates of a large number of Christians, based on speculation, rose a suspicion of the murder of the boy, as if to give his blood, leave without any suspicion. “71
However, Alexander I, although there was a quarter of a century, ever, and not focused on finding and realization of the next, and beneficial for all parties, the decision of the Jewish resolve issues in Russia.
How can there be and what to do with this distinct and so far have not yet showing the characteristics of assimilation into Russia, and for this nation growing rapidly in numbers? – Thought and opponent of the emperor, Decembrist Pestel, seeking a decision for the future of Russia, which is intended to establish. He is the “Russian Truth” offered two options. One is – really unite Jews from the Christian population of Russia: “Above and all must put the objective of removing harmful for Christians the impact of existing close relationship between the Jews held by them or as a protest against the Christians, or directed against all other citizens for the complete separation of Jews from other nationality … The most learned rabbis and Jewish wisest convene, listen to their performances and then order the appropriate project … If Russia does not drive out the Jews, the more they should not leave the stosuneku hostile to Christians. “The second output” is to help the Jews to establish a separate state in any part of Asia Minor. For this you need to set a collection point for the Jewish people and to strengthen their activities a number of troops. “(It is not far to the future of the Zionist idea?). Total Polish and Russian Jews are more than two million”. The number of people seeking a homeland, not difficult to overcome all obstacles that may confront them Turks, and will be able to go all the European part of Turkey, to go in some Asian and there, having taken them good and sufficient space and the earth, decorate your own, the Jewish state . “However, soberly reserves to Pestel,” Cale is a huge undertaking requires special circumstances and truly brilliant entrepreneurship. “72
The second of the Decembrists, Nikita Muraviev, in its draft constitution proposed this: “The Jews can enjoy the rights of citizens in places now inhabited by them, but the freedom to settle them in other places will depend on the relevant resolutions of the Supreme People’s Rally” 73.
In these cases, the internal organization of communal Jewish population in Russia in many ways and efforts based intrusion of state power and any external influences. And – as you look at it. From the standpoint of orthodox-religious Jewish view, as it explains certain Jewish authors, is being dispersed Jews is a historical punishment for the sins of Israel for Past and they have to survive this dispersion so that the merit of the Lord for forgiveness and the opportunity to return to Palestine. And for this they must necessarily live according to the law and in no way are not allowed to mix with the surrounding nations – This is a subject them to the test.
А liberal Jewish historian for the beginning of the twentieth century: “The ruling class is not capable of creative work, alien to the spirit of the era, directed its energies trying to protect the religious-nationalist fossilized life from the blows of time – from the outside and from the inside”. Kahal extremely hard overwhelm even the weakest voices of protest. “Cultural and educational reform, outlined Act 1804 years boiled down to this, to smooth out some of the religious and strangeness nacjonalną Jews, without resorting to coercion and even” saving the most even their prejudices, “” These resolutions strongly disturbed Kahals … contained in them was a threat to the rule kahals over the nation, “and particularly sensitive to kahals, from all points of the Act 1804 was” no throwing the usual heremu (curse), “and even more severely from it:” to keep people in slavery subordination by centuries of specific social arrangement where you could not even allowed to change clothes “74. But you can not deny that kagaly had and rational for Jewish life legislation, such as the rule of” walking “- granted or refused by individual members of the legal community to take the leases, choose a given action, then interrupt Jewish excessive internal competition – see 75 “Do not violate your close between” (Deut. 19 – 14).
In 1808, an unknown Jew anonymously (fear of hearing from the Kahal) gave the minister of internal affairs memo entitled “Some observations on the device of the Jews”. He wrote: “Many do not consider to be sacred rites and countless … distracting than anything useful, issuing rebellious people in slavery, because of the great number of these rites receiving a large part of the time depriving Jews” opportunity to be good citizens. “He pointed that “the rabbis, in their business life pounding resolutions network,” in their hands concentrated and spiritual, and legislative, and police power, and this is “just the study of the Talmud and the performance of rites, as the only means of counting in generating prosperity” was ” the most important dream in the efforts of the Jews, “and although the Act”, the government restricted the right of rabbis and kahals, “but” the spirit of the nation remained former “.” The author notes believed “the perpetrators of rabbis and folk Kahals ignorance and poverty.” 76
Another Jewish social activist, Giller Markiewicz, an exile from Prussia, he wrote that the members of the Vilna Kahal, with the help of the local administration, to give raw persecuted anyone who reveal their illegal activities: now deprived of the right heremu (curse) of their whistleblower held “long time in jail … And as someone … has found a way to write the such kahałowego prison … notice to state authorities, it is, already using employees Kahal, without any further misunderstandings sent to the other world ”. When the similar offenses revealed, members of Kahal used a huge bribes to those who could wring the head. “JI Hessen has what the message” is not groundless, and just saying this to some extent affected and other kahals “77. Cases such killings, carried kahals command found in the reports and in other Jewish historians.
А because Kahals in confrontation to government more based on a religious sense of their actions – “kahalno – rabbinical association, trying to hold in their hands the power over the masses of Jewry, the government asserted … that every act of the Jew is subordinated to this or another religious injunction, the role of religion became extremely great “- for this reason” in the bureaucratic circles there was no view of Jews as members of different social groups, but as much complex … the unit “why faults and offenses committed by individual Jews were not explained in any case the individual causes, а “that supposedly resulted directly from the teachings of the Jewish faith.” 78
Kahałowo-rabbinical association did not want to see or hear anything. Tight curtain hung his power over the masses of Jewry. Kahal expanded power despite the fact that the laws of the elders were deducted kahals Act of 1804. “The loss of these rights was compensated for recognizing what Kahal decided, you know, that only in a strictly fixed range, and that meant that it remained in the role of Kahal governing institutions, such as it was in Poland. Zoom owed its importance Kahal deputies institutions “. Such an institution of deputies from the Jewish communities of the western governments for continuous consideration, along with the state government, issues of Jewish life was founded in 1807 and periodically worked for 18 years. Deputaci matter put up in front of all the rabbis restore law harem (curse), they explained that the rabbis deprivation of the right to punish disobedience is the opposite of “religious worship” which Jews
“According to the law should show rabbis”. Deputatom managed to convince members of the Committee (Committee Senator Popov in 1809), that the authority of the rabbis is the support of the Russian government. “They shall not resist the threat consisting in the fact that the Jews came out of obedience to the will of the rabbis in the” degeneracy “, and the Committee” was willing to keep the inviolability of all this archaic institution, simply because to avoid the terrible consequences of which deputies said .. . The Committee did not realize who it believed MPs as “criminals religious law”; The Committee did not suspect even that turned out to be takowymi criminals and those Jews who sought to your education “,” deputies directed their efforts to ensure that the power to fix the Kahal, stop at the very beginning of the educational movement “79. Deputies obtained and the abolition of the previously entered restrictions and regulations directed against the Jewish traditional medieval clothes, so very much odizolowującego Jews from all over the world around them. it is the “law of the application by the German Jews clothes will never come to fruition,” this right has been delayed by the Lord of the legal regulation in the future 80.
However, not all deputies were left demands accepted and settled favorably for the Jews. To bring to the favorable settlement of a number of issues need to be larger sums of cash and “in order to get the money, MPs threatened [her] society and presenting them in dark colors were announcing the government’s plans, with great exaggeration of any adverse rumors circulating around the capital.” Markowicz 1820 exposed the deputies stating that “intentionally expanded the wrong message … to the road to force Jews to increase the amounts of contributions to the Kahal to obtain the required sum by the delegates.” 81
In 1825 the Institute of Jewish Deputies was lifted.
Not yet subsided tension between the authorities and kahałami, and already Kahals as the only authorized to collect the poll tax of the Jewish population “hid” the number of members of their community “at the controls”, reducing the size of a large number of Jewish taxpayers. “The government wanted to know the exact number of the Jewish population to obtain an adequate sum taxes “was a big concern of the government to know this number 82. For example, in Berdichev,” you have not saved the Jewish people so that only half of the actual demonstrated their number “83. (According to official data, which the government could establish to 1818, Jews were 677,000, that’s quite a high number. But, for example, compared with the year 1812, the number of men suddenly doubled, but still the number of Jewish taxpayers, given by Kahals, was strongly underestimated. the total count them, join about 400,000 Jews in Polish Kingdom). However, even at these meldowanych by reduced numbers of taxpayers Kahals been reported each year in taxes and deficits not only do not coincide with the number of taxpayers but administered shortages grew year after year. Dissatisfaction with such an obvious hiding the number of taxpayers and retention fiscal charges (and smuggling practices carried out by the Jews) spoke to representatives of the Jewish himself, Alexander I. In 1817 he was issued a decree on remission of accrued penalties, fines, and all the old outstanding debts; spared all penalties for incorrect administration of taxpayers – but on the condition that from now on they will be given Kahals 84. However, data integrity, and is “not produced any result. In 1820, the finance minister said that all the used methods, focused on economic recovery Jewish people remain the No … Many Jews wander without documents, a new table of the number of established such that two or even three times, exceeded the number previously given by Kahals as the number of members of these communities. “88
А Jewish population continued uninterruptedly its extremely fast growing demographic growth. As the main cause of this phenomenon, many researchers believe the Jewish customs prevalent in that time, early marriage, and that the boys from the age of 13 years and girls from 12 years of age. As already mentioned anonymous 1808 paper this unknown Jew, wrote that the custom of early marriage “is the root of all evil” and prevents Jews to break away “from the ingrained habits and the issues they attract each other general outrage and hurt themselves and others “. Has established so that “nieżeniący up in the early years are treated with contempt of the Jews” and “even the poorest take extremely efforts on achieving that as soon as possible to marry children although these young couples are waiting Passion beggar existence. Early marriage have been introduced by the Rabbis-withdrawing with this income. Who earnestly studying the Talmud and severely performs rites, this rather find a way to benefit early marriage … People that gets involved only reading the Talmud, and when the time finally occurs independent existence, these fathers of families, totally prepared to work , totally ignorant of life, take a course related to the distillery, product and selling wines and engaged in petty trade. “And in the craft: “żeniący a fifteen-year student no longer teaches his craft, but it gets the same host and just spoiling my job.” 89 (In the mid 20s – those “in the provinces of Grodno and Vilnius rumors that it will be forbidden to marry without reaching adulthood, and thus began hastily marry among children even dziewięcioletnimi” 87).
Early marriage weakened the national life of the Jews. With this collective life, in such
zgęszczaniu population and the inevitable competition for the same class was inevitable rise of poverty! Kahals policy, in itself, to facilitate “the deterioration of their [the Jews] material situation.” 88
Ilier Menashe, an eminent Talmudist, but defender education, in 1807 printed and sent rabbis his book (soon to be withdrawn from circulation by the rabbis and the next his book surrendered rabbis mass combustion), in which “emphasized the dark side of Jewish life. The misery – he wrote – unusually large, but can it be otherwise, when the Jews more than a paragraph of labor? I need to arouse the masses feel that livelihood should earn their own work … Many people who do not have any earnings, including marriage, hoping to God mercy and purse father in law, and when this fails to help, they already held by the family, throwing themselves on the first lagging behind the occupation, although that and it was and unfair. the big crowds take to trade, but that he can not all feed, this and that is why they resort to fraud. Here why it is desirable that the Jews turned to farming. Loafers Army, under the guise of “scientific”, lives with charity funds and on behalf of the community. No one to take care of the entire nation – the rich are busy with a view to profit, and the rabbis dispute between the Hasidim and mitnagdami “(Orthodox Israelis). The only concern is to prevent Jewish activists’ disasters such as government orders, although they would carry with them and good for the Jewish nation “89.
And here’s the “source of existence of a significant part of the Jewish people became a small trade and small crafts and brokering”, “Jews over the city filled faktorstwem and small trade” 90.
And how there could be such a healthy economy of the Jewish people located in such conditions?
Finally, during the later Jewish author, already in the mid-twentieth century, writes about those times:
“It is true that the Jewish masses lived in cramped conditions and poverty. But the Jewish community was not entirely destitute “91.
I’ve got quite an interesting fall out a certificate from an unexpected side. Here’s how to see the life of Jews in the western provinces of the Russian participants of the Napoleonic army in roku1812 and once through these lands. Under Dokszycami Jews “the rich and the wealthy keep a large trade with the entire Russian Polish and even visit the exhibition in Leipzig”. In Deep “Jews have the right to forcing spirit, producing vodka, wine and mead”, were “tenants or owners located along the main roads of pubs, taverns and inns.” Jews in Mogilev “were wealthy and conducted widely branched trade” (although “next to the rich Jews was a poor Jewish scary”). “Almost all of the local Jews had patents on trade in spirits. I strongly developed among them were cash transactions.” I have one eye witness: “В Kiev … countless Jews.” Overall rating of Jewish life, by the Jews themselves, showed satisfaction, although such an opinion was not widespread 91. From the point of view of psychological and ontological observers were “specific characteristics” of Russian Jewry: “constant vigilance mood … to their fate and specificity. .. roads in his struggle and self-defense. “Many felt obliged to remain in a kind of system – the presence of “commanding and enjoying the great authority to maintain social … peculiar formula for the other method of their own lives”; “adapt to the new conditions of the nation was largely adaptation team” and not the individual 93.
I need to evaluate the benefits of organic cohesion and unity, which in the first half of the nineteenth century, “gave the Russian Jewry extremely peculiar nature of the world. The world was narrow, limited, subject to the tribulations associated with the suffering and losses of, but it was all for them all over the world . Man it is not choked. Możnaąbyło in this world and feel the joy of life, could be found in him … and material and spiritual food, and you could build its life on your taste and convenience … Meaning there was and the fact that the religious nature of the collective was associated with a traditional Jewish education and language “94.
Although another author of the same set of Russian Jewry and notes: that “the deprivation of rights, physical and social needs of humiliation interfere with the growth of self-respect in their own nation.” 98
Like almost every question related to Judaism, made and presented here is the picture of these years. You need the whole movement and in the future do not pass to underestimate the complexity of all the time to have it in mind, ignoring the emerging conflict between the various authors. “I used to, until the expulsion from Spain, moving ahead of the other nations on the way of progress, Judaism (East – Europe) there now (in the first half of the eighteenth century.) To the total cultural collapse. Deprived of Rights and isolated from the world around him, closed the Jewry in itself. Next to him, not moving it passed the era of rebirth, it also passed the eighteenth century intellectual movement. in Europe. Jewry was strong within yourself. awkwardness countless religious instructions and prohibitions Jew felt not only enslave them, but and saw in them a source of endless joy. his mind was welcomed in a sophisticated dialectics of the Talmud, feelings Kabbalah and mysticism. and the study of the Bible gone by the wayside with the grammar was considered almost przestępstwo96 “.
Strong movement of Jews to modern education started from 2 – й mid-eighteenth century. In Prussia and was named the Haskalah (Enlightenment). It was a mental awakening movement, striving to achieve a European education to raise the prestige of Jewry, humiliated in the eyes of other nations. Including a critical examination of the historical past of the Jews, activists Haskały – “masklizm” (“recovery of sight, enlightenment”) wanted to harmonically combined with knowledge of the Jewish culture of Europe 97. First of activists intend to remain in traditional Judaism, but, enchanted, they decided to spend the Israeli tradition and guided the on assimilation, while showing “a contemptuous attitude … to the people’s language” 98 “(ie, to Yiddish). in Prussia movement lasted a total of one generation, but quickly moved on to the Slavic provinces of the Austrian empire, it is our region,, Galicia. in Galicia Haskały defenders, with even greater assimilation-oriented, they were ready to introduce education and violence in the Jewish masses, and even “often resorted to the assistance of the authorities” for this “across the border with western Galicia guberniami very easily occurred in Russia to penetrate be people and ideas. And yes, the lateness almost a century, this movement penetrated and Russia.
In Russia at the beginning of the twentieth century, the government “was trying to win Jewish” singularity “without prejudice to matters of religion and worship” – that gave the Jewish author of 100, including no less that he confirmed that the Russian government is not in any way violate the Jewish religion and not intervened in Jewish religious life. And then he wrote – “We have already seen that the Act of 1804 opened without restrictions and without ambiguities Jewish children all the way to the schools, junior high schools and universities,” and “destroy the embryo deliberate cultural and educational reform – it is to be guided by the efforts of the Jewish class leadership “101,” kahal done great efforts to stifle even the slightest glimpse of enlightenment “102. in order to” keep intact the old religious and social life … rabbis and Hasidim, with equal insistence, they tried to destroy in the bud beginnings of secular education “103
And here, “the broad masses watched” with horror and suspicion, “the Russian school, not wanting to even hear about it i” 104. In 1817 and later in 1821 noted cases in different provinces, when кагалы did not allow Jewish children to learn Russian and any general language schools. Jewish deputies in St. Petersburg insisted that “do not consider necessary institution [such] Jewish schools,” where would be taught any language, in addition to the Jewish deputaci 105. Those recognized only cheder (school starting with the Hebrew language) and jeszebot (like higher dredging program knowledge of the Talmud); there was such a jeszebot “in almost any larger population of Jews.” 106
Jewish masses in Russia were to be able to fossils, from which the state could not go out alone.
Well, here in this environment, and first appeared preachers education, but they proved to be powerless to start something without the help of the Russian government. This is the first, Isaac Levinson-Bier, a scholar, living with Galicia, in contact with activists Haskały there, not only blaming the rabbinate, but many Hasidim as perpetrators of folk woes. Based on the Talmud and rabbinic literature, argued in his book “Letter to Israel,” that in no way a Jew is not allowed to learn foreign languages, and particularly the language of the country in which they live, as required in personal and social life; as well as knowledge of secular science, which is the knowledge is also not likely to endanger the religious and national feelings; and that the prevalence of commercial activities and is contrary to the Torah and reason, and it is necessary to develop their own productive work. For the issue of this book came out Lewisonowi use the subsidy from the Ministry of Education, what and convinced that cultural reform in Judaism can not be completed without the help of higher authorities 107.
A little later in Warsaw Hezeanowskij teacher who, in an official letter to the authorities, the opposite of Lewinson, not based on the Talmud but firmly turned against him and rabinatowi kehilla assigning the “spiritual stagnation” in which people like petrified “; also see that the condition for the introduction of a secular school is a reduction of power Kahal and rabbis. Also recommended checking melameds (teachers cheders) in terms of moral and pedagogical and make releasing them to teach only suitable for this purpose. He also believed it necessary to offset kahals financial management of schools and advocated an increase in the permissible age for marriages.
Even earlier than these two, already mentioned above, the Giller Markowicz in a letter to the Minister of Finance also wrote that for the salvation of the Jewish nation from spiritual and economic collapse have to destroy Kahals; Jews need to learn languages, organize them to work in factories, but also make it possible to trade freely throughout the country and use the services of Christians. А later, in the 30s – those, most are repeated and Litman Fejgin, Chernihiv trader, a prominent supplier, repeated persistently, by Benkendorfa and at the hands of Nicholas I (Fejgin benefited from support from the bureaucratic wheels). Fejgin defended the Talmud but blamed melameds, believing them to be the “last of the ignorant” … and that they teach theology based on fanaticism “” and “arouse in children contempt for other sciences, as well as the hatred of infidels”. Also deemed necessary to abolish the institution kahals. (Hessen, another enemy kahals system, believed that Kahal “his despotism” invoke “unprecedented ferocity” in the Jewish nation, 108).
However, it still has a long and very long was the way for the introduction of secular education in a Jewish environment. The exception was in the case of only Vilnius, where under the influence of union with Germany strengthened group of intellectuals “maskilim”, and Odessa – a young capital of New Russia, with many Jewish exiles from Galicia (not very strict limit) populated many nations and play a lively commercial traffic – here kahal did not feel too strongly, and intelligence, on the contrary, she was independent and culturally (and clothes and external appearance) merged with the surrounding population 109. even though “most Odessa Jews relied school institution” of general, after many efforts of the local administration in the 30’s – these and Odessa and Chisinau created private secular Jewish schools and they were recognized by Jewish communities 110.
А further, by the nineteenth century, the spurt of Russian Jewry to education quickly grew and had historical consequences and for Russia and for all humanity in the twentieth century. Russian Jewry high concentration of will was able to get out of this dangerous and ossified state to raise the living and diverse life. Already from the middle years of the nineteenth centuries were apparently close badges revival and prosperity of Russian Jewry – a historic scale movement by anyone even if not provided.
An a summary of this book is provided here: Solzhenitsyn Russia and the Jews
CHAPTER 3 NOT AVAILABLE